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Understanding how and why to use citations is essential for giving credit to the appropriate author and avoiding plagiarism. Citations also help your reader locate sources. You need to ask yourself, is it possible for someone to find this information in the future? For example, census statistics would require a citation because your reader could go locate that information again.
Formatting Styles typically used to cite sources:
Follow the links below for guidelines in each style type. If you are unsure of which format is required, ask your instructor.
Citation Styles and Reference Guides
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by
Publication Date: 2010-01-01
he Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines in which effective communication with words and data is fundamental. In addition to providing clear guidance on grammar, the mechanics of writing, and APA style, the Publication Manual offers an authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system and comprehensive coverage of the treatment of numbers, metrication, statistical and mathematical data, tables, and figures for use in writing, reports, or presentations.
The Basics of APA Style
This tutorial is designed for those who have no previous knowledge of APA Style. It shows users how to structure and format their work, recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.
Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for APA Style
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
Here's a sample paper provided by APA. For every style rule, there is a comment highlighted in the paper that tells you where to find the discussion of the rule in the APA Style Manual.
MLA Handbook by
Publication Date: 2016-04-01
The Modern Language Association takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. It provides one universal set of guidelines which writers can apply to all reference types.
Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for MLA Style
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
MLA Citation Format Tutorial
A step-by-step tutorial beginner's guide to MLA formatting. This source has video references, practice templates and quizzes to test your content knowledge.
This sample paper contains comments about the formatting changes specific to MLA.
The Chicago Manual of Style by
Publication Date: 2010-08-01
This manual provides information on manuscript preparation, punctuation, spelling, quotations, captions, tables, abbreviations, references, bibliographies, notes, and indexes, with sections on journals and electronic media.
Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for Chicago Style
This source contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. This method is primarily utilized in humanities courses and follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition.